SJCA Newsletter January 2001

by IA Alex McFarlane

Thank you for the generally positive feedback I have received on the new format of the Newsletter. May I remind you that this is your newsletter and I will publish comments from you on any chess related matters. So let me have your opinions on chess tournaments, arbiters’ decisions, your school club or chess clubs in your area. Do you play in a Schools’ League? Please send me details. I would particularly like to get tournament reports from England and abroad. Pictures (which can be returned) are especially welcome. Please send any contributions to the address on the last page.

But firstly a message from our President

Towards a Scottish Chess Federation?

The Councils of the Scottish Chess Association and Scottish Junior Chess Association have both resolved to embrace the concept of a merger from July 2001. A merger is seen by both Councils as the potentially best option for maximising development of chess in Scotland.

Various groups are being set up to pursue specific aspects of the possible merger and monitor the progress of the project. Details of the groups are given on the SCA web-site, which will also contain progress updates from time to time. Members of both organisations will of course have the final decision at the AGMs later this year on whether the merger goes ahead.

The Steering Group [John Glendinning, Rod Tweedie, Iain Mackintosh, Ronnie Macdonald] has had one meeting during which it agreed that, if the merger does go ahead, we should be looking for a new name for the combined organisation. The Group would therefore like to ask members of both organisations what name they would suggest. Sam Collins has generously agreed to act as co-ordinator so please let Sam have any suggestions and he will pass them on to the Steering Group. E-mail Sam at , or call 0141 221 6464 or write to the SJCA c/o Scottish Chess Association, 15 Hope Street, Glasgow, G2 6AQ. A change in name is likely to bring with it a change in logo, so if you have proven creative skills in this direction, can you please also let Sam know?

A Tournaments sub-group has been considered and a number of areas relating to the development of Chess particularly at grass roots level and most importantly in Schools are under consideration.

The team will be considering what the priorities are, and what is realistic for delivery. It is intended also to market test these ideas by arranging a one day forum to try to bring in all those who are active in schools chess at present to discuss what events should be organised going forward. That forum should hear ideas from different people with as wide a spectrum of representation as possible and the team (with input from teachers, parents, managerial and political opinion) will then pursue those ideas which gain favour. It is intended to cover secondary and primary schools, clubs, leagues and other regional activity, including training.

A provisional date of Sunday 25th February has been arranged for the Forum with the venue likely to be Stirling which is the most central location for ease of travelling.

Would all parties interested in attending the Forum (particularly teachers, parents and organisers of school chess) please advise SJCA President, Rod Tweedie who will send further details of the Forum.

Rod can be contacted by e-mail at the following addresses:

Fax: 01786 449498

Business Tel. No. Day 01786 448716

Home Tel. No. Evening 01236 765638

The Forum will give all those interested in the development of Chess a real opportunity to shape and influence the way forward and your contribution is of paramount importance. Please do try to attend and help us develop positive steps to safeguard the future of Chess in Scotland.

Rod Tweedie

SJCA President

International Concern at the Lack of Young Players

FIDE, the world governing body, is concerned at the diminishing numbers of young chess players. It correctly sees that this will adversely affect what it calls amateur chess and what we would call grass roots chess and ‘therefore the life-blood would be lacking for an overall promotional policy’. FIDE attributes at least part of the blame for the reduced numbers on a shortage of good instructors for a thorough teaching of basic technique. It goes on to state that there should be a balance between spending resources on the gifted players and coaching the majority. The FIDE Chess in Schools Committee has adopted the phrase ‘Quality through Quantity’ and suggests that chess should model its structure on that of football where as well as the Premier league players there are millions of recreational, amateur, youth and schools players.

It is also interesting to note that in Italy the national chess federation in conjunction with the Italian Olympic Committee and the Ministry of Education has signed an agreement for a program to teach chess in schools.

International Ratings

FIDE now produce gradings four times a year. On the October list one of our members appears for the first time with an impressive rating. This is Daniel McGowan who is 2098

Joe Redpath at 2122 and Elaine Rutherford who is 2106 both show impressive rises. Elaine is already a Woman FIDE Master and the Woman International Master title requires a rating of 2200 or above.

SJCA Events

Scotland v Wales

The teams for the Under 14 and Under 12 internationals in Paisley at the Brabloch Hotel on January 27th, 2001have been selected. In alphabetical order they are:-

Under 14: Ross Anderson, Hugh Brechin, Charles Curry, Andrew Docherty, Colin Hall, Stuart Henderson, Colin Horne, Louise McNab, Jimmy Orr, Peter Stewart, Steven Tweedie and Peter Vas.

Under 12: Christopher Ballard, Felix Campbell, Gordon Greig, Christopher Macdonald, Calum MacQueen, Graham McKay, Keiran Montgomery, David Oswald, Kathleen Rutherford, Gregor Smith, Victor Vas and Reece Watt.

Good luck to both teams!


Mike Hanley organised another SJCA training event and get together on October 14th at St Mirren’s ground in Paisley. Despite it being during the October break 40 turned up to the event. Whilst the bowling afterwards was a success, unfortunately the Love Street official who had agreed to give a tour of the ground decided that he would rather see his team lose to Celtic so no-one from the club was available to give a guided tour.

The next training session will be on 21st January, 2001 and will be held at East End Park the home of Dunfermline Athletic Football Club.





Do you know of a schools’ league?

If so can you contact Alex McFarlane

(address on last page)

giving a contact address if possible.


Scottish Schools’ Championship

The sections for the Scottish Schools’ Championship are as follows:

Robert Gordon’s A George Heriots

Robert Gordon’s B Galashields

Nairn James Young

Perth Deans

Stewarts Melville

St Margaret’s Ardrossan

St Brides (Primary) Castlehead

Greenwood C Greenwood B

Belmont House Greenwood D/E

Newton Mearns



Greenwood E/D

James Hamilton

It is disappointing to note the lack of entries from state schools in Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen. It is welcoming however to note that Greenwood (Irvine) continues to enter a number of teams and that St Bride’s Primary (Bothwell) are willing to compete against the ‘big boys’.

The following three events were held in Airdrie YMCA on 26th November, 2000. The event clashed with the Old Firm derby and this kept the numbers down slightly.

SJCA Secondary - Airdrie

This event had 14 entries but unfortunately only 11 turned up.

1st David Deary 4½/5; 2nd Kevin Martin 4; 3rd Viraat Chopra 3½; 4th E Garvie, B Littler 3; 6th K Miller, M Montgomery, S Jenkins 2½

The following also competed:

G Patterson, I Stokes, S Greenwood.

Best S1 E Garvie

Best S2 B Littler

Best S5 G Patterson

SJCA Primary 6/7 - Airdrie

There were 26 entrants for this event.

1st Keiran Montgomery 4½/5; 2nd Calum Macqueen 4½; 3rd G Grieg, Calum Docherty 4; Carine Docherty, R Aitken, I Pearce, D Jenkins, F McNaughton, G Langlands, L Shovlin, J McShane, C Elsden 3

The following also competed:

G Currie, J Mullen, J Richmond, S Mullen, S Thom, J Hopkins, M Mason, A McCaig, G Wright, K Andrews, J Cunningham

Best P6 Calum Docherty

SJCA Primary 5 and Under - Airdrie

24 players entered this event.

1st Mark McAuley 5/5; 2nd David McAuley 4; 3rd Ian McGregor 4; 4th Jennifer Beattie 4; 5th Iain Cameron 3½; 6th= C Devine, A Henderson, T Nicholl, A McInally 3; 10th J Currie 2½.

The following also competed:

E Robertson, P Campbell, S Sherry, N Jootun, G Rankin, S Ogilvie.

Best P5 T Nicholl

Best P4 J Currie

Best P3 H Barbour

The first weekend of December was a busy one for SJCA organisers. Stephen Taylor travelled to Nairn and Norrie and Maureen Mathie along with John Montgomery and Andy McQueen were at Paisley.

Junior Events at Nairn (December 2nd)

37 players competed here. The P5 and Under event was won by Adam Bremner (St Joseph’s) with a score of 4/5. Second was Alastair Grant (Quarryhill) 3.5 and third equal wereWilliam Jamieson (Quarryhill) and Conal McGregor (Millbank) 3.

The P6/7 event was won by Scott McInnes (Millbank) 4.5/5. Emily Melville (Golspie) was second with 4. Third equal were Charles Jamieson and Craig Murdoch (both Quarryhill) 3.5. Cheryl MacDonald, Jennifer Paton, Aiden Sutherland and Reece Watt all scored 3.

In the Secondary event the winner was David Grant of Quarryhill with a score of 4.5. Runners-up were Christopher Adams, Donald-Paul Mathieson (both Nairn Ac) and Russell McCarthy (Golspie H) 4. Darryl Urquhart scored 3 and Ruairidh Melville scored 2.5.

No Wait at Paisley (December 3rd)

This event has no fixed times for rounds, players are paired as soon as their previous game is finished. 53 turned up to the event.

Secondary: 1st Gordon Cowell (West Kilbride), 2nd Ivan Stokes (Bearsden), 3rd Brian Little (Park Mains). Other prize winners – S Jenkins, S Diamond, G Mann, I Goodwin, J Burns, C Williams, D Smith.

Primary: 1st Ian McGregor (Jordanhill). 2nd Calum McQueen (Bishopton), 3rd Andrew Kindness, 4th Ross De Courcy, 5th Frazier McNaughton (all West Kilbride). Other prize winners – C Dunlop, I Cameron, C Devine, J Crawford, A Henderson, G Langlands, C McKay, J Millar, T Nicholl, A Nisbet, N Paton, E Robertson, T Singh, J Rooney, D Jenkins, R Aitken, L Elkerton, S Kindness.

Chess Suppliers’ Grand Prix

Can anyone challenge Joe Redpath this year? Only Christopher MacDonald is anywhere near him at the present time. Louise McNab has an even stronger lead for the Girls’ prize. There are now 136 names on the list of people who have scored Grand Prix points this season up to beginning of December.


Joe Redpath 91.25

Christopher MacDonald 75

Derek Rooney 39

Louise McNab 38.5

James Ross 38

Colin Hall 37.5

Steven Tweedie 37.25

Murray Pollock 34.5

Colin Horne 29.25

Graham McKay 21.75

Charles Curry 19.75

Keith Anderson 17.5

Andrew Docherty 17

Hugh Brechin 16.75

Kevin Martin 16.25

Stuart Greenwood 16

Keiran Montgomery 15.75

David Grant 13.5

David Deary 13.25

Keiran Canning 13

Ian MacGregor 13

Gordon Grieg 11.25

Lloyd Hughes 10.75

Peter Vas 10.75

Carine Docherty 9.75

Sandy Enoch 9.5

Marcus Montgomery 9.25

Gavin Reid 9.25

Lynsey Shovlin 9

David Oswald 8.75

Gordon Phillips 8.25

Neil Thomson 8

Kirsty Stephenson 7.5

Glorney Cup

Some brief details of this were given in the last issue. However the report did not mention the individual success of Joe Redpath (opposite) who won the prize for the top score by a board one from any of the competing nations. Joe dropped only a half point to score 4½/5 and pick up the gold medal. The others scored as follows:

Gordon Rigg 1½; Graeme Kafka 1½; David Sime 1½ and Duncan Grassie 3 all from 5 games.

Match scores: 1½-3½ v Czech Republic, 2-3 v France, 3½-1½ v Ireland, 2-3 v Belgium, 3-2 v Wales.

Final positions:

1 France 9 5 Scotland 8½

2 Netherlands 8½ 6 Ireland 7½

3 England 7 7 Wales 7

4 Czech Republic 5½ 8 Belgium 7

Here is Joe’s win as white against Arnaud Rainfray of France who was rated 2425 and can be considered as International Master standard.

J Redpath v A Rainfray:

1. d4 d5 2. c4 c6 3. Nf3 Nf6 4. Nc3 e6 5. Bg5 dxc4 6. e4 b5 7. e5 h6 8. Bh4 g5 9. Nxg5 hxg5 10. Bxg5 Nbd7 11. g3 Rg8 12. h4 Rxg5 13. hxg5 Nd5 14. g6 fxg6 15. Qg4 Qe7 16. Bg2 Bb7 17. Qxg6+ Qf7 18. Qxf7+ Kxf7 19. Ne4 Bb4+ 20. Ke2 Nf8 21. Rh6 Be7 22. f4 Rd8 23. Rah1 Kg7 24. R6h5 Nb4 25. Ng5 Rd7 26. Nxe6+ Nxe6 27. Rh7+ Kg8 28. Rh8+ Kf7 29. R1h7+ Ng7 30. e6+ Kxe6 31. Rxg7 Kd6 32. Rh6+ Kc7 33. Bh3 Ba6 34. Bxd7 Kxd7 35. f5 c3 36. bxc3 Nxa2 37. Kd2 1-0

For a fuller report see the October issue of Scottish Chess.

European Junior

This event was held in Kallithea in Greece during September where the two Scottish representatives enjoyed the sun and sand and the facilities of the 4 star hotel in which they stayed.

Graeme Kafka scored 4½/9 in the Under 18 event and Daniel McGowan scored 5/9 at Under 14 level, both players performing at 2100+ level. Graeme commented that it was the best food he had ever had whilst abroad on international duty but was still not as good as MacDonalds.

World Junior

This was held in Oropesa del Mar, Spain in October.

A magnificent victory by Christopher Macdonald over the very highly rated English player Murugan Thiruchelvan was the highlight of this event. Thiruchelvan played in the 1999 British Championship where he scored 4 points and regularly picks up prizes in Open events in England. Unfortunately, Christopher could not maintain his good form. The best overall performance by a Scot was that of Joe Redpath. International Master Douglas Bryson, who was in Scotland’s team at the Olympiad (World Team Championship, see below) thinks that this may be his last appearance as Joe is likely to be selected before him if he continues his rate of improvement.

Squad Scores:

U18 - David Sime 3½/11

U16 - Joe Redpath 6/11

U14 - Colin Hall 5/11

U12 - Christopher MacDonald 3½/11

Girls U14 - Louise McNab 4½/11


The Olympiad is the world team championship. Scotland had both a Mens’ and Womens’ team at the event in Istanbul, Turkey from 27th October until 12th November. There were 128 teams in the Mens’ (Open) event and 87 in the Womens’. Elaine Rutherford was board two for the Scotland women’s team and scored 7/13. Heather Lang, who has done a considerable amount of training of girls before going to university in England was the reserve player and scored 3/7. The Scotland women’s team scored 20/42. The men did very well to finish only 1½ points behind England (the number two seeds) on 31½/56.

Is your club looking for equipment?


Contact Mike Hanley

38 Churchill Crescent,


G71 8JP

Tel 01698 850 303

For Boards, Sets and Clocks


Sam Collins at Chess Suppliers PO Box 67

15 Hope Street, Glasgow G2 6AQ

Tel/Fax 0141 248 2887

For all other chess requirements

Other Tournaments

World’ Championships

Lanarkshire claimed two World Champions on Sunday 24th September when Kevin Martin and Steven Tweedie won the primary and secondary titles respectively. The title is, of course, misleading. The Lanarkshire World newspaper sponsored the local school championships and hence the name.

Primary - 1st Kevin Martin (St Dominic’s) 5/5; 2nd= James McShane, Kevin Miller, Eoghan Morgan 4/5. Best P7 Mark McGoldrick and David Ewart; best P6 Graeme Curry & Phillip Mitchell 3/5; best P5 John Tawdrous, Stephanie Thom & Martin Mason 3/5; best P4 Conor Devine & Haley Donohue 2/5; best P3 Benjamin Filmer 2/5.

Secondary – 1st Steven Tweedie, 2nd Christopher Tweedie, 3rd Derek Rooney, 4th Gary Patterson.

These World Championships were free from incident unlike the Kramnik v Kasparov match in London where the ‘Scotsman’ newspaper’s correspondent, John Henderson was asked to leave the building and had his press accreditation removed. Henderson had been complaining about a lack of opportunities for close up photographs and had described the sponsors, the Brain Games Network as the Brain Dead Games. Inexplicably the organisers took exception to John and had him removed from the building.


Almost incidentally, Kramnik won the match to claim the (unofficial!) world title.

In the official FIDE World Championship the winner was Viswanathan Anand. There is now hope that the two new champions will play a match to unitethe two titles.

Edinburgh & Lothians Allegro:

Held on 30th September at Wester Hailes this became the first rapidplay event to count towards the Grand Prix. Russell McCarthy won the Minor with a score of 5/5 and Keiran Canning won the junior prize.

Perth Congress (6-8 October)

In what was possibly the last Perth Congress – only substantial sponsorship will save the event – SJCA members were to the fore.

Minor: 1st= Derek Rooney, David Logue 4½/5

Saturday Primary: 1st David Oswald 5½/6; 2nd Reece Watt 5; 3rd Lynsey Shovlin 4. (12 entrants)

Sunday Primary: 1st Peter Vas 5/6; 2nd= Kieran Montgomery, Victor Vas 4½.

Novices: 1st Lucy Davie 5½/6; 2nd Kevin Martin 5; 3rd= Malcolm Lennox, Alistair McLeod, Sean McEvoy, Marcus Montgomery 4.

Fair City (29th October)

Over 100 players turned up to Perth Town Hall for the Fair City Congress.

Bishops (Secondary): Going into the last round there was the possibility of a 12 way tie for first place. It finished in a 4 way tie amongst Hugh Brechin, David Grant, Murray Pollock and Karen Shovlin.

Knights (Primary): There was a play-off between Gordon Greig and Victor Vas to decide who won the trophy and chess set. Victor was the victor here!! In third place was Chris Elsden (Equal on points with Chris were Lloyd Hughes, Stuart Leslie, Lynsey Shovlin, Ian MacGregor and Felix Campbell who lost out on tie break.)

Pawns (Primary 5 and under but with an upper grading limit of 500): 1st Andrew Milne, 2nd Grant Hay, 3rd Rachel Curry.

Glasgow Congress (3-5 November)

In the minor Murray Pollock was a point ahead of the field going into the last round. His quickly agreed draw ensured that he finished in first place.

U14 Saturday: 1st Gavin Reid 5/5; 2nd Gordon Phillips 4/5. U13 Sat: 1st Martin Tait

Under 12 Sat: 1st David Oswald 5/5; 2nd Kevin Martin 4/5; 3rd Ivan Stokes 3½/5. U10 Sat: 1st Ian MacGregor, 2nd Jamie Malkin.

U14 Sunday: 1st Gordon Phillips 4½/5; 2nd (and winner of U13) Marcus Montgomery 4/5; 3rd Lucy Davie.

U12 Sun: 1st= Kevin Martin, Lloyd Hughes, Kieran Montgomery, Calum MacQueen (in that order on tie-break)

U13 Sun: 1st Ian MacGregor; 2nd Rhian Hughes.


This event was held from 9-11 November and had a larger than normal number of junior entries (helped by a minibus load from Greenwood and a number from Aberdeen). A junior prize was added because of this.

Best performance by a junior belonged to Christopher MacDonald, who despite being the second lowest graded player, managed to score 3½/5 in the Challengers (the second top event) winning the grading prize in the process. Louise McNab also won a share of the grading prize in the Major.

Wester Hailes Junior Chess Congress

This event took place at the Education Centre in Edinburgh over the weekend of 18-19 November and was organised by the Lothian Primary Schools’ Chess League.

The two day Premier was for under 14s and attracted an entry of 10. It was won by Steven Tweedie with a score of 8/9. In second place was Peter Vas who was awarded the primary prize as well. His score was 6½. Third equal were Keiran Canning and Hugh Brechin 5½, but Hugh lost out on tie-break.

40 players took part in the one day Primary event. This was won by David Oswald with a score of 7/7. In second place was Lloyd Hughes on 6. The following all scored 5 points and their positions were determined by tie break:- Ian MacGregor, Lynsey Anderson, Martin MacDonald, Cameron Bell and Chris Elsden.

Best Under 9: Rhian Hughes

Best 9 Year Old: Euan MacKenzie (from Conor Devine on tie break)

Best 10 year old: Graham Bush.



SCA Council Meeting

On 15th October the Scottish Chess Association (SCA) Council unanimously accepted the motion that "Council should embrace the concept of a merger from July 2001 of the SJCA and the SCA". The SJCA Council has already passed an identical motion. Whilst this does not mean that the two organisations will merge, it does mean that there is a willingness to discuss the potential future benefits. Discussions are still at a very early stage. Members will be kept advised of developments. Names suggested for the combined body include ‘Scottish Chess Federation’ and ‘CHESS Scotland’. Comments welcomed.

Following the decision of both organisations various groups are being set up.(See first page) The groups are as follows:

Steering Group (to manage the merger process if it goes ahead, to suggest a name and structure for the organisation, to consider the financial situation and ensure a sound database of existing activity throughout Scotland)

Members: Rod Tweedie (SJCA), John Glendinning (SCA), Iain Macintosh, Ronnie Macdonald

Constitutional (to examine the process for merger, examine existing constitutions for problems, examine voting rights for young people within a merged organisation and the construction of a new constitution)

Members: Joe McAdam (SJCA), Ken Stewart (SCA)

Finance (merging bank accounts and considering budgets)

Members: Stuart Good (SJCA), Lydon (Mac) McKenzie (SCA)

Membership, administration & finance (examine membership structure, including family membership, and fee structure)

Members: Rod Tweedie, George Brechin (both SJCA), John Glendinning, Sam Collins, Mac McKenzie (all SCA)

Tournaments (consider priorities, existing tournaments and possible new tournaments)

Members: Maureen and Norrie Mathie,Stephen Taylor, Mike Hanley (all SJCA), Gerald Bonner, Graeme Nolan (both SCA)

International (Structure for international youth chess including trips to England for weekend congresses)

Members: Maureen and Norrie Mathie, Alex McFarlane (all SJCA), John Glendinning, John Shaw, David Sime, Elaine Rutherford (all SCA)

Publications and Website (Scottish Chess, this Newsletter, web site, quality guides, general marketing)

Alex McFarlane (SJCA), Iain Macintosh, Douglas Bryson (both SCA)

The groups have to report to the steering group by 28th January, 2001.

Terence Chapman Awards

The Terence Chapman Group, which sponsors a Grand Prix throughout Britain (though mainly in England) also gives £4000 per year to top English juniors. This is made up of one £1000 award and six of £500. The first winner of the £1000 is Nicholas Pert (19). Amongst those receiving £500 awards are 13 year old Ameet Ghasi and 12 year old Gawain Jones. Ameet recently tied for first place in the British Rapidplay Championship beating two Grandmasters in the process (Keith Arkell and Mark Hebden) and Gawain made the national press when as a nine year old he became the youngest person in the world to defeat an International Master (Malcolm Pein). Gawain has an International rating of 2184! The other recipients were Jovanka Houska, Ruth Sheldon, Adam Hunt and Craig Hanley.

Does anyone know of a sponsor who might be willing to promote Scotland’s leading juniors in a similar way?

Web Site

Scottish Chess has its own web site. The web site contains lots of news, tournament details and links to other sites. It now contains lots of junior items including previous issues of the Newsletter so if you want to keep up to date with the latest Chess Suppliers Grand Prix positions why not log on to:


It has been pointed out that the article on grading in the last Newsletter presented a very negative picture. I apologise for this. The article was intended to give a view of the state of chess currently and, perhaps, to encourage some players to try harder. It is never too late to improve your chess. Current joint Scottish Champion, John Shaw, did not play competitive chess as a junior and Scotland’s number 1 – Jonathan Rowson – only reached about board 6 in the primary team.

New Year Quiz

Some tricky questions to try over the holiday period.

Question 1

Examine this position. White to move. What is the least number of moves to checkmate for WHITE!!

Question 2

How many squares OF ANY SIZE are on the chessboard?

A 64

B 128

C 204

D 306

Question 3

After one move by both sides how many different (and legal) positions could there be?

A 20

B 64

C 100

D 400

Chess at the Olympic Games

Did you know that there was a chess exhibition at the Olympic games in Australia? On 24th September at the Olympic Village, Sydney Vishy Anand (India) and Alexei Shirov (Spain) both 2700+ strength played each other in two rapidplay games, both of which ended in draws. Shirov had major problems travelling to the event and arrived just six hours before play was due to start. Recognition of chess by the International Olympic Committee will have an affect in Scotland. Players in future Scottish Championships are likely to be submitted to drugs tests as are players representing Scotland in international events. Those playing in events for Under 16’s will not be tested though juniors in Under 18 or adult events may be.

If chess is included in the Olympics it is likely to join the Winter Games. The next Winter Games is due for Salt Lake City in 2002 but this is thought to be too soon and 2006 is a more reasonable date.


Please send any articles for inclusion to:

Alex McFarlane, 2 Castlehill Crescent, RENFREW PA4 8RY.


Derek Rooney (White) v David Sime during the open air tournament in George Square, Glasgow in July. Derek is wearing the hat, not as protection from the pigeons but, because he has no style!!

Quiz Answers

Q 1. The answer is half a move!! White has started to castle and has moved the king from e1 to g1 and now plays the rook from h1 to f1 with mate.

Q 2. C – There are 64 squares of size 1x1 , 49 of size 2x2, 36 of size 3x3, 25 of 4x4, 16 of size 5x5, 9 of size 6x6, 4 of size 7x7, and 1 of size 8x8.

Q 3. D Each side has 20 different first moves, giving a total of 400 different positions.